BRAND HISTORY



Jaguar Cars has a rich and long history, from the humble origins of the Swallow Sidecar company in 1922 through to the successful multi-national company of today. A summary of Jaguar's history is provided below.

In 2010, Jaguar celebrated its 75th anniversary.

BIRTH OF A LEGEND

William Lyons' original vision was to build motorcycle sidecars. To this end, he set up the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922. By 1927, however, he'd moved on to cars. In 1931, he launched what would be the first of many legendary vehicles: the SS1. And as his cars improved, he needed a name that would better reflect their speed, sleekness and raw power. In 1935, Jaguar was born.

MILITARY PRECISION

During World War II, whilst concentrating primarily on the manufacture of sidecars for military use, the company also learned about aircraft design and production techniques. When Jaguar subsequently introduced its new XK120 at the 1948 Motor Show – with an engine output of an unprecedented 160 BHP – it was destined to become one of the greatest sports cars of all time.

The Mark VII saloon was unveiled at the 1950 Motor Show and once again Lyons 'stole the show'. Jaguar now had a fine reputation, a superb large saloon and a very fine sports car, but it needed a high-volume smaller car. In 1955, the company invested £1 million on designing and developing the Jaguar 2.4 to fill the gap.

A RACING PEDIGREE

After an exploratory trip to Le Mans in 1950, it was realised that Jaguar had the makings of a successful competition car. Consequently Lyons was persuaded that a car should be produced solely with racing in mind. Hence the XK120C was born or, as the car is more generally known, the C-type. Three C-types were finished just in time for Le Mans in 1951. The Jaguars were an unknown quantity, yet the C-type driven by Peter Walker and Peter Whitehead recorded a remarkable victory on its racing debut. Meanwhile, Jaguar engineers had been working in conjunction with Dunlop on a new development, the disc brake. This was to be Jaguar's secret weapon upon their return to Le Mans in 1953. With their fade-free brakes the C-types could decelerate at the end of the three and a half mile Mulsanne Straight from speeds of around 150 mph, with complete confidence, and they could leave their braking far later than their rivals.

The result was a complete walkover – the Jaguars finishing first, second and fourth. If further proof were needed that Jaguar was now a world force and the XK engine a world beater, then the emphatic Le Mans triumph of '53, against one of the strongest fields any race had ever seen, provided it. By the end of the decade, Jaguar C-types, and the D-types that followed, had achieved a total of five victories at Le Mans.

THE E-TYPE AND BEYOND

By the 1960s, Jaguar needed to make another quantum leap forward. The E-type, announced in 1961, was just that. Like the XK120 in 1948, it was an absolute sensation, perfectly capturing the spirit of its time. A true automotive icon, and arguably the most famous sports car of all time, some 70,000 Jaguar E-types were built over the next 13 years – with around 60% being shipped to the United States. In 1968, the XJ6 arrived. It was without question the finest Jaguar saloon yet and met with instant praise. First and foremost, the shape was another Lyons masterpiece. In an era when cars were starting to lose their character, the Jaguar strongly retained its identity. In 1972, aged 71, Sir William Lyons retired.

1975 saw the launch of the XJ-S, a sports car with saloon-car refinement, which would prove popular well into the eighties. During the decade that followed, Jaguar competed in the US IMSA, the European Touring Car Championships and the World Championships. In 1988, the company added another Le Mans victory to the five achieved in the fifties. Two years later, the fortieth anniversary of its first Le Mans appearance, saw Jaguar claim both first and second place – its seventh win at Le Mans.

NEW MILLENIUM – AGE OLD VALUES

The nineties saw the introduction of the XK8, the XKR sports coupés and convertibles and the mid-sized S-TYPE sports saloon, making up Jaguar's widest ever range.

In February 2001, the X-TYPE became the highlight of the Geneva International Motor Show. The following year, the XJ, with its revolutionary aluminium body, was unveiled at the Paris Motor Show. Then came the XF; the first sporting saloon to emerge from the philosophy of building beautiful, fast cars. The next chapter is beginning right now – with the reimagining of the iconic XJ.

Today, as in the past, Jaguar cars result from a unique objective, best articulated by the marque's charismatic founder: to be "the closest thing we can create to something that is alive."



The History of Land Rover: Small Beginnings, Big Results

Six decades equates to 60 years, or 720 months, or 21 900 days. During that period, Land Rover has grown from little more than a sketched outline of a vehicle on a beach to a global brand selling hundreds of thousands of vehicles. It's been a journey filled with adventure, courage, engineering excellence and, above all, many thousands of content and loyal Land Rover Owners. Below, we trace just some of the highlights that have made Land Rover great.

1947 – The Birth of a Legend

The Land Rover brand that you have come to know and love was born in a sketch made in the sand on a Welsh beach in 1947. While using a Jeep on his farm in Anglesey, Rover's Technical Director Maurice Wilks and his brother Spencer Wilks - Rover's Managing Director - saw a gap in the market and development of Land Rover commenced using a Jeep chassis and a Rover car engine. The use of simple body panels made from light alloy and a chassis fabricated from off-cuts avoid the use of rationed steel and the need for complex and expensive press tools.

1948 – The Launch of Land Rover: and Instant Success at the Amsterdam Motor Show

A year later the first Land Rover is launched at the Amsterdam Motor Show, and is an instant success. Rover quickly realizes that the 'stop gap' product is set to outsell its other vehicles – and by the end of the year is exporting the Land Rover to nearly 70 countries.

1949 – Land Rovers Exported to the USA

The first Land Rovers are exported to the USA.

1950 – Land Rover's Dynamic Four Wheel System Updated

Changes are made to the original Land Rover design – larger and more powerful headlamps that shine through apertures in the grill are fitted, and a hard-top is fitted. The four-wheel system is dynamically changed – and drive to the front axle in high range is engaged by pressing down on one lever, while low range is selected by pulling another lever rearward. In selecting low range, four-wheel drive is automatically engaged.

1951 – Land Rover Engine Increases in Size

The 1.6-litre Rover engine is replaced by a larger-bore 2.0-litre unit.

1953 – An Increase in the Load Space of the Early Land Rover

To increase the load space area, the wheelbase of the Land Rover is extended to 86 inches. A new long-wheelbase Pick Up version and a Station Wagon are created, and are as popular as other versions.

1955 – A New Power Unit for Land Rover

Based on a new engine in production for Rover saloon cars, a new power unit is introduced to the Land Rover.

1956 – Bigger and Better Land Rovers: Longer Wheelbase for More Space

Land Rover gets bigger and better: 10-seater 107-inch wheelbase Station Wagon is introduced. The wheelbase is extended to 88 and 109 inches to make room for a new diesel engine under development.

1957 – Land Rover Diesel: A New Family of Engines

The start of a whole new family of engines – a 2.0-litre diesel engine is introduced, and features overhead valves.

1958 – Still Going Strong after 10 years: Land Rover Series II

Land Rover Series II is released at the Amsterdam Motor Show – ten years after the first Land Rover was launched at the same event. The Land Rover Series II features a wider body with barreled sides and sills to conceal the chassis. It also debuts with a new 2.25-litre petrol engine, and is very positively received.

1959 – 250 000th Land Rover is Manufactured

In another landmark of a legendary vehicle brand, the 250 000th Land Rover rolls off the line.

1961 – Land Rover Series IIA: Higher Power Output

The Land Rover range is now known as the Series IIA, and the capacity of the diesel engine is increased to allow for greater power output. A 12-seater Station Wagon is introduced.

1965 – Land Rover Acquires Alloy V8 Engine

Negotiations with General Motors are completed – and Land Rover acquires the rights to an all-alloy lightweight 3.5-litre V8 petrol engine.

1966 – Production Reaches 500 000 Mark

In April, Land Rover production reaches the half million mark.

1967 – Rover Company Merges with Leyland

The Rover Company merges with truck manufacturer Leyland, which had acquired the rival Coventry-based car maker Triumph. A six-cylinder 2.6-litre engine is made available as an option on 109-inch wheelbase models.

1968 - Two Major British Vehicle Manufacturing Groups Merge

Leyland - including Rover and Triumph - join the British Motor Corporation (BMC). The merge incorporates Austin, Morris and Jaguar, thus uniting British vehicle manufacture in one company: British Leyland. Following a three-year development period, the 'Truck Utility ½ Ton' – better known as the 'Lightweight' - enters service with the British Army.

1969 – Lighting Regulations Change

To comply with new lighting regulations, the headlamps are moved to the front fenders.

1970 – Birth of the Range Rover: Gold Medal for Coachwork and Don Trophy for Safety

In June 1970, Land Rover launches a major new model line – the Range Rover – set to become the core of the brand in the future. The vehicle's suspension is by long-travel coil springs - endowing the vehicle with good road manners as well as remarkable articulation for off-road agility.

Power comes from the new all-alloy, 3.5-litre petrol engine – which gives the big vehicle a top speed of nearly 160 km/h. The Range Rover features permanent four-wheel drive to cope with the power and torque output of the V8 engine. The Rover-designed two-speed transfer box shares a common case with the four-speed manual gearbox and has a vacuum-operated center differential. The braking system has innovative dual-circuit hydraulics with all-round disc brakes. The two-door body features Land Rover's trademark aluminum panels on a steel frame and embodies Rover's latest safety technology including seat belts integrated with the folding front seats.

The trim reflects the vehicle's utility roots with its easily cleaned PVC coverings. The Range Rover is awarded a gold medal for its coachwork, while its safety features are recognized by being awarded of the Don Safety trophy.

1971 – The 750 000th Land Rover Produced and Range Rover Receives RAC Dewar Award

In a bumper year for Land Rover, the 750 000th Land Rover is produced, the Range Rover receives the RAC Dewar award for outstanding technical achievement, a great car-journey begins in Alaska, and the Land Rover Series III is launched.

The Series III features an all-synchromesh gearbox and more powerful brakes with the long-wheelbase, with the 109 inch versions receiving servo assistance. The interior is updated with a revised instrument pack placed in front of the driver, and a new top roll to the facia. Externally, the Series III introduces a new front-end treatment with a revised lighting layout in a styled fender-front recess, which is complemented by a new plastic radiator grille.

The British Trans-Americas Expedition leaves Alaska in two Range Rovers in December - heading for Tierra del Fuego. One of the last great car journeys of the world left to be done, the real challenge lies in the jungles of the Darien Gap in Central America.

1972 – Land Rover 1-Tonne Forward Control Announced

The Land Rover 1-tonne Forward Control is announced. The vehicle is designed to the British Army specifications it is powered by a de-tuned, militarized version of the 3.5-litre V8 petrol engine used in the Range Rover.

1975 – British Leyland Under State Control

Following years of industrial disruption, British Leyland is taken under state control to prevent its bankruptcy and the loss of tens of thousands of jobs.

1976 – 1 Millionth Land Rover manufactured

The production of an 88-inch Station Wagon at Solihull marks the one millionth Land Rover built.

1978 – Land Rover Limited Created

Industrialist Michael Edwardes is brought in by the Government to manage British Leyland. He creates Land Rover Limited as a separate operating company, and for the first time in its history, Land Rover is under independent management. Government funding is promised to allow for a doubling of production by the 1980s.

1979 – New Version of 109-inch is Launched

A new version of the Land Rover 109-inch, powered by the V8 petrol engine, is launched.

1981 – 4 Door Range Rover is Launched

The four-door version of the Range Rover is launched.

1982 – Range Rover Production Reaches 100,000

Range Rover production reaches 100 000, and following the introduction of the four-door a year earlier, the company introduces an automatic gearbox option to the Range Rover, using the three-speed Chrysler 'Torque lite'. The Land Rover 'County' Station Wagon variant is launched with improved interior comfort. The High Capacity Pick Up is introduced on the Land Rover 109.

1983 – Land Rover One Ten is Launched<

Land Rover's new managing director, Tony Gilroy, begins a programme to concentrate production at the main Solihull plant. The Land Rover One Ten is launched. The new vehicle uses the coil spring suspension of the Range Rover in a new stronger chassis frame. Other features include a five-speed gearbox, front disc brakes, a one-piece windscreen and optional power steering. The extended-wheelbase Land Rover 127 also appears in Crew Cab form. The Range Rover is upgraded with a five speed manual gearbox and other improvements. Annual production now tops 12 000 vehicles.

1984 – Land Rover Ninety makes its Debut

The Land Rover Ninety debuts, featuring new doors with wind-up windows. Following a successful limited edition, the 'Range Rover Vogue' is introduced at the top of the model's line-up.

1985 – Automatic Gearbox Improvements

the refinement of Range Rover's automatic option is improved with the introduction of a ZF four-speed gearbox. Land Rover vehicles are now being sold in 120 countries with plans for even more expansion.

1986 – Diesel Powered Range Rover Breaks Records

a diesel powered version of the Range Rover is launched with a 2.4-litre turbocharged VM engine. The benefits of the new engine are underlined when a diesel Range Rover breaks 27 speed and endurance records. The Land Rover also gets the option of a turbocharged diesel engine based on its earlier naturally aspirated unit.

1987 – Range Rover Launched in the US

The formation of Range Rover of North America heralds the launch of the vehicle in the US market.

1988 – 40th Anniversary of Land Rover

Land Rover introduces a Borg-Warner chain-driven transfer box with a viscous-coupled center differential into the Range Rover's driveline. This introduces a significant improvement to the vehicle's refinement, reinforcing its luxury credentials. The 40th anniversary of the Land Rover is marked by total sales of over 1.6-million vehicles worldwide. The Rover Group is sold to British Aerospace (BAe).

1989 – Range Rover gets 3.9 V8 Engine

The Frankfurt Motor Show in September sees the launch of the first new Land Rover vehicle since the Range Rover in 1970. The Discovery moves Land Rover away from its traditional markets and into the burgeoning leisure sector. While based on the Range Rover, the Discovery is new where it matters. The interior with its distinctive facia style and striking light blue color-way owes much to input from the Conran design Consultancy. The exterior features a distinctive stepped roof with a single rear door mounting the spare wheel. The powertrain debuts the new 200 TDi direct-injection diesel engine while the 3.5-litre V8 petrol engine is offered as an alternative. The Discovery's launch is supported by a massive marketing campaign which is designed to support Land Rover as a brand in its own right. Helping to distinguish the Range Rover from its new stablemate, as well as giving a useful power boost, its V8 engine is enlarged to 3.9 liters. Detail design changes give the Range Rover a sleeker profile with concealed front door hinges.

1990 – 20th Anniversary of Range Rover and Defender is Introduced

The Land Rover range is offered with the 200 TDi engine and, in support of the new Land Rover brand strategy, the model is named 'Defender'. A four door version of the Discovery is introduced. The 20th anniversary of the Range Rover is celebrated with the introduction of a four-wheel, four-channel ABS braking system – the first in the world designed for optimum performance off-road, as well as on-road. North America becomes the largest export market for the Range Rover. Underlining its credentials as the world's leading manufacturer of off-road vehicles, Land Rover opens the 'Land Rover Experience' at Solihull.

1992 – Air Suspension and Electronic Traction Control – 'Firsts' in an Off-Road Vehicle

Land Rover of North America is founded with a limited edition of 500 Defender 110 vehicles powered by the 3.9-litre V8 engine. The long-wheelbase Range Rover LSE showcases a number of 'firsts' for an off-road vehicle. These include air suspension and electronic traction control.

1993 – Driver and Passenger Airbags in the New Discovery

Land Rover of North America follows up the success of the launch of the Defender 110 with the Defender 90 soft top. For the 1994 Model Year, Discovery receives a major facelift. Externally, there is a new front-end treatment with new front lights. Internally, a new facia allows the installation of driver and passenger airbags. These changes pave the way for Discovery's introduction into the North American market. The Range Rover also receives a new facia treatment.

1994 – Rover Group Acquired by BMW An all-new Range Rover is launched. The new vehicle has a long-wheelbase chassis and air suspension system, and seeks to bridge the gap between off-roader and sports saloon. The new Range Rover has a new chassis and semi-monocoque body for rigidity, and is powered by developments of the V8 petrol engine with a BMW six-cylinder diesel alternative. The Rover Group, including Land Rover, is acquired by the German car maker BMW.

1995 – Production Tops 100 000 Units Per Annum

Production of Land Rover vehicles at Solihull tops 100 000 units per annum.

1997 – Freelander is Launched The Frankfurt Motor Show in September sees the debut of a brand new Land Rover product, the Freelander. Powered by transverse-mounted four-cylinder petrol or diesel engines, the Freelander uses an Intermediate Reduction Drive unit to take the drive to the back axle via a viscous coupling. Two body styles are offered – a five-door estate and an exciting three-door. The Freelander's off-road ability is reinforced by the innovative Hill Descent Control (HDC) system.

1998 – 50th Anniversary of Land Rover Celebrated with Limited Editions of all Models

April 30th sees the 50th anniversary of Land Rover. Special commemorative limited editions of all four models are produced. The Discovery Series II is launched. The new vehicle has a new, longer body to accommodate seven forward facing seats. Another innovation is Active Cornering Enhancement (ACE), a computer-controlled high-pressure hydraulic system to control vehicle roll. The ABS braking system of the new Discovery incorporates the Hill Descent Control (HDC) system developed for Freelander. The new Discovery acts as the launch platform for the Td5 engine, a five-cylinder, and 2.5-litre direct injection diesel engine featuring high pressure electronic unit injectors. The engine now also powers the Defender.

2000 – Land Rover Sold to Ford Motor Company

The Rover Group is sold by BMW, with Land Rover being acquired by the Ford Motor Company, joining Aston Martin, Volvo, Lincoln and Jaguar in the Premier Automotive Group. Bob Dover is named as CEO.A revised Freelander debuts with power coming from new 2.5-litre V6 petrol or 2.0-litre common-rail diesel engines.

2001 – Three Millionth Land Rover Produced

the three-millionth Land Rover comes off the Solihull production line – a Freelander built for the US market. The new Range Rover is revealed. Its investment cost of £1-billion makes it the biggest project carried out by the British motor industry. The new vehicle is very different to its predecessor. It is larger and of monocoque construction. The suspension uses air springs but is independent all round, with an innovative linked system to replicate the action of a beam axle to maximize off-road articulation. The vehicle is powered by two BMW engines – a 3.0-litre six-cylinder turbo-diesel, and a 4.4-litre V8 petrol. The external design and stylish interior epitomizes presence and luxury.

2002 – Discovery Gets a Facelift: "Family Face"

The Discovery receives a facelift in the shape of a new front end featuring the Land Rover 'family face' introduced on the new Range Rover. Range Rover production notches up its 500 000th vehicle in May.

2003 - Land Rover is Named 'The Greatest Car of All Time' by Viewers of the BBC's 'Top Gear'

The Freelander is face-lifted with new, Land Rover trademark 'pocketed' headlights, external design revisions and an upgraded interior. Land Rover runs the first 'Land Rover G4 Challenge', an extreme adventure competition using specially-adapted Range Rovers, Discovery's and Freelander's, with Defenders as support vehicles. The Land Rover is named 'The Greatest Car of All Time' by viewers of the BBC's 'Top Gear' television programme.

2004 – Discovery 3 Debuts

The Range Stormer concept vehicle, heralding a new Land Rover design direction, is revealed at the Geneva Motor Show. The Discovery 3 makes its public debut. Featuring a new 'Integrated Body Frame' architecture, the new vehicle echoes the design themes of the original Discovery but with 21st century sharpness. New technology includes the 'Terrain Response' system. Power units include a 4.4-litre V8 petrol, a 2.7-litre V6 diesel and a 4.0-litre V6 petrol engine. The suspension is independent all round, while a flat floor optimizes space in the rear compartment. The Discovery 3 is launched in the North American market as the Land Rover LR3.

2005 – Range Rover Sport

The Range Rover Sport is launched. It uses similar architecture to the Discovery 3 with revisions to the suspension to improve road holding. To further improve handling, the Range Rover Sport can be specified with the Dynamic Response system. A Jaguar-derived 4.2-litre V8 petrol supercharged engine developing 290 kW is offered. The exterior design has all the drama of the earlier Range Stormer concept vehicle, while the interior is configured around four people with the driver being treated to a cockpit feel engendered by a high center console and well-placed instrument panel.

The 500,000th Freelander leaves the production line just eight years after its introduction. The vehicle is marked with paw prints and the logo of the Born Free Foundation and is offered as a prize to launch an appeal for the animal welfare charity.

2006 – Diesel Electric Hybrid SUV Land_e Revealed at Geneva Motor Show

The Land_e is revealed at the Geneva Motor Show. The diesel-electric hybrid SUV incorporates the latest fuel saving technology and a unique 4x4 drive system. The Range Rover 2007 model year vehicle introduces a new V8 diesel engine. Based on the technology used in the smaller V6, it provides virtually the same performance as petrol engine versions but with vastly improved fuel consumption. The engine is also available in the Range Rover Sport.

The Freelander 2 is launched. An all-new vehicle, it continues the Freelander concept but with a new generation of six-cylinder petrol and four-cylinder diesel engines. The transmission incorporates new manual and automatic gearboxes and an electronically-controlled coupling unit. The crisp lines of the exterior design incorporate cues from its predecessor while the interior has a well-integrated, luxury feel. The new model includes the latest Land Rover on and off-road technology, including Terrain Response. Built in the award-winning plant at Halewood on Merseyside, it is firmly aimed at staking a claim in the vital US market.

2007 – Four Millionth Land Rover is Produced

The icon of the Land Rover brand, the Defender, receives a facelift in the shape of a new, 2.4-litre diesel power unit coupled with a new six-speed gearbox. A new interior revitalizes its appeal. The four-millionth Land Rover vehicle is produced. A Discovery 3, it is donated to the Born Free foundation. The LRX Concept Car makes its debut at the Detroit Motor Show. The hybrid vehicle is considered the clearest and most exciting indication yet of Land Rover's response to environmental concerns and the challenges of motoring in the future.

2008 – Land Rover Sold to Tata Motors

Land Rover and sister luxury brand Jaguar are sold to Tata Motors by the Ford Motor Company for a reported $2.3-billion. Tata Motors retains the entire management team and pledges to invest in the future and technological development of the brands. The move is heralded as a positive step. Land Rover launches the SVX – a special, limited edition version of the Defender, available in 90 soft-top and 90 and 110 CSW versions. It celebrates the 60th anniversary of Land Rover. Only 1 800 units will be produced worldwide.

2009 – Discovery Turns 20

The Land Rover Discovery celebrates its 20th Anniversary.



1920-1924: Chrysler teamed up with three ex-Studebaker engineers, Fred Zeder, Owen Skelton and Carl Breer, to design a revolutionary new car. They defined what the products of the Chrysler brand would be - affordable "luxury" vehicles known for innovative, top-flight engineering.


1924: The first was the 1924 Chrysler Six, an all-new car priced at $1,565 that featured two significant innovations - a light, powerful, high-compression six-cylinder engine and the first time four-wheel hydraulic brakes were standard on a passenger car. The well-equipped Chrysler Six also featured aluminum pistons, replaceable oil and air filters, full-pressure lubrication, tubular front axles, shock absorbers and indirect interior lighting.


1930-1935: Within a decade of its founding, Chrysler Corporation's leadership in innovation had earned for it the label of Detroit's "engineering company." Chrysler's list of early automotive "firsts" included Floating Power (a new method of mounting engines to isolate vibration), replaceable oil filters, downdraft carburetors and one-piece curved windshields.

Chrysler entered a higher level of competition with its richly appointed Imperial series. With a custom-built body from LeBaron or Briggs, a 145-inch-wheelbase chassis, a 125-horsepower engine and a price tag of $3,145, a typical Imperial of the early 1930s rivaled a Duesenberg in style, but cost only about a third as much!


1946-1954: The first indication of changing times at Chrysler came with the 1951 development, and enthusiastic reception, of the authoritative, hemispheric-head V-8 engine. The soon-to-be legendary HEMI® combined better combustion, higher compression and lower heat loss to create much more horsepower than previous V-8s. Close behind was the fully automatic Powerflite transmission.

Chrysler then reaffirmed its engineering reputation by commissioning a revolutionary gas turbine engine program. This 27-year campaign to apply an aircraft engine turbine's smooth power and low maintenance requirements to automobiles became part of the Chrysler brand's folklore.


1955-1962: Exner revived Chrysler production car design with the sleek, sculptured Forward Look designs of 1955 that transformed the product line overnight. The Forward Look flagship was the 1955 Chrysler 300, a striking automobile that combined smooth styling with brawny HEMI power. The 300, arguably the first muscle car, became a legend on and off the race track and set records throughout the 1950s, including a 143-mph performance at Daytona Beach. As the Fifties progressed, Chrysler products began to sprout distinctive tailfins, ostensibly to improve handling and stability above 70 miles per hour. The 1957 Chrysler brand standard-bearer, the 300C, was equipped with a standard 392-cubic-inch, 375-horsepower HEMI, two four-barrel carburetors, a high-output camshaft, Torsion-Aire suspension and the new Torqueflite transmission, making it the fastest, most powerful production car built in America that year and earning it the appellation "beautiful brute."

The company's engineering "firsts" from this era include the first "safety cushion dashboard," the famous Chrysler push-button transmission (which became an icon of the '50s), power steering, torsion-bar suspension and the first practical alternator (introduced in 1960, it proved so successful it became standard equipment just one year later).]


1963-1970: Chrysler products evolved gracefully through the '60s - fins disappeared, large cars became more refined - and ads for the 1963 New Yorker promised that there were "no junior editions to compromise your investment." The 1963 Chrysler 300-J maintained the brand's style-plus-speed image with standard leather interiors, heavy-duty torsion bars and Ram induction manifolds; a special-edition Pace Setter convertible version started the Indianapolis 500.

By 1965, Chrysler sales had increased 65 percent and the brand moved from 11th to ninth place in national rankings. Models ranged from the "affordable luxury" of the Newport line (with no fewer than 376 trim and color combinations), through the high-line New Yorker to the sporty 300 with its 440-cubic-inch V-8 engine.


1971-1979: One design highlight in Chrysler's rapidly evolving 1970s lineup was the Cordoba - a 115-inch-wheelbase coupe billed as "Chrysler's new small car." With its Jaguar-like front end, formal roofline and one-of-a-kind rectangular taillamps, it became one of the era's most memorable cars - along with the TV commercials featuring actor Ricardo Montalban extolling the virtues of its "rich Corinthian leather" interior. Cordobas sold better than all other Chrysler models combined, inspiring other new, "smaller" Chrysler designs, like the LeBaron Medallion coupe.


1980-1987: The automotive "back to basics" era peaked with the 1984 introduction of the minivan. Chrysler Corporation's most practical vehicle proved to be its most popular and eventually led to the revival of the Chrysler Town & Country nameplate on an upmarket version.

The design highlight for the Chrysler brand during this period was unquestionably the LeBaron convertible, which reintroduced the convertible to the American market and enjoyed a nine-year run as it brought style and excitement back to the brand. 1988-1998: In the late 1980s, new leadership at Chrysler, determined to return the brand to its roots of engineering and design excellence, decided to create an entirely new line of "Euro-Japanese-ethic" cars - and developed platform teams to get the job done quickly and affordably. The new product philosophy was reflected in the development of concept cars like the 1988 Portofino and the 1989 Millennium.

Chrysler's renaissance began in earnest with the mid-size 1993 Concorde sedan, which was quickly followed by the full-size LHS and Chrysler 300M, the smaller Cirrus sedan, the companion Sebring luxury sports coupe and the separate Sebring convertible, and the next-generation Town & Country minivan.


2000+: The new millennium ushered in a decade of innovation and design accomplishments for Chrysler, most notably the launch of the iconic Chrysler 300C-the latest generation in a long pedigree of champion 300s built for excitement since 1955. When it was launched in 2005, the stunning 300C turned the eyes of the automotive world back to Detroit. And shone a new spotlight on great American design.

But the Chrysler 300C wasn't the only shining example of Chrysler design innovation this decade-the introduction of the PT Cruiser fused modern amenities with a retro sensibility romanticizing an era of hot rod Model A wagons. And the decade was one of remarkable reinvention of the minivan. By the people who invented it. With our family flagship Town & Country receiving a host of technology and safety innovations to maintain its status as the minivan benchmark into the new millennium and beyond.

Chrysler was founded on the philosophy of design with purpose. To build revolutionary new cars - affordable luxury vehicles known for their innovative, forward-thinking engineering. And it is our purpose today and for tomorrow. .Our alliance with Fiat® Group now gives us the competitive advantage of access to new technologies and advanced engineering solutions that further our mission. Our beautiful purpose. To create the type of exciting, efficient, reliable, safe vehicles you expect and deserve.

Detroit, 2011. Design and innovation take flight. This is Chrysler now. We can't wait to unveil what's next.



Jeep vehicles have been the transportation of choice for liberators and adventurers for over 50 years. Here you'll find a history of the Jeep vehicle from the beginning to the Wrangler (TJ), and the evolution of the 1946 Willys Utility Vehicle into today's Cherokee and Grand Cherokee.

The original Jeep vehicle was born of necessity, and hand-built in just seven weeks with lots of hard work and genius.

Since at least as early as World War I, the U.S. Army had been looking for a fast, lightweight all-terrain reconnaissance vehicle. In early 1940, however, things became urgent as the Axis powers began to score victories in Europe and Northern Africa and the need to rapidly develop this vehicle became more urgent. The Army put out a call to automobile manufacturers asking for a running prototype for such a vehicle in just 49 days.

The original government specifications were as follows:

•   Vehicle weight: approximately 1,300 pounds (This proved to be totally unrealistic and later was raised to 2,160 pounds.)
•   Four-wheel drive
•   Engine (power): 85 pound-feet of torque
•   Wheelbase: Not more than 80 inches
•   Tread: Not more than 47 inches
•   Ground Clearance: Minimum ground clearance of 6.25 inches
•   Payload: 600 pounds
•   Cooling System: Good enough to allow a sustained low speed without overheating the engine

The Bantam Car Company, which had supplied some earlier reconnaissance vehicles to the Army, and Willys-Overland were the only two companies that responded to the Army's call, although over 130 companies had been invited to respond. The 49-day deadline was problematic, however, and Willys-Overland asked for more time to finish their vehicle. Bantam's only hope to meet this deadline was to bring in outside help.

Bantam's savior turned out to be Karl Probst, a Detroit engineer who had worked for several automotive firms. Enlisted by National Defense Advisory Committee head William S. Knudsen (former president of General Motors), Probst accepted the patriotic challenge without salary and went to work July 17, 1940. In just two days he had completely laid out plans for the Bantam prototype, the precursor of the Jeep® vehicle. On July 22, Bantam's bid was submitted complete with layouts of this new vehicle. The bid claimed that the vehicle met the weight limit of 1,300 pounds although it was actually much heavier.

Bantam's first hand-built prototype was complete and running by September 21, 1940, meeting the 49-day deadline. The Army put this prototype through torturous testing, taking the Bantam Jeep vehicle over 3,400 miles, all but about 250 of which were unpaved. The testers eventually concluded "this vehicle demonstrated ample power and all requirements of the service."

Ultimately, Willys and Ford both submitted prototypes based on the Bantam plans supplied to them by the Army. The Willys "Quad" and the Ford "Pygmy" prototypes added their own changes and modifications to the basic Bantam design.

For example, the Willys Quad prototype also exceeded the specified weight limit, due in large part to its superior engine. This ultimately worked to Willys' advantage when the weight limit was increased: the strength in the Willys vehicle — powered by its "Go Devil" — was the only one that met the Army's power specifications. In fact, the Willys' 105 pound-feet of torque not only exceeded the required power, but dwarfed Bantam's 83 and Ford's 85 pound-feet of torque.

In light of Bantam's shaky manufacturing and financial position, and the advantages of the Willys vehicle, the Army contract was awarded to Willys. Since the War Department required a large number of vehicles to be manufactured in a relatively short time, Willys-Overland granted the United States Government a non-exclusive license to allow another company to manufacture vehicles using Willys' specifications. Pursuant to this agreement, Willys supplied Ford Motor Co. with a complete set of specifications.

During World War II, Willys and Ford filled more than 700,000 orders, with Willys Overland supplying more than 330,000 units.

We do know that overnight Jeep vehicles were recognized by soldiers and civilians alike as the vehicle that could go anywhere and do anything. But where did the name Jeep come from?

Although no one really knows for certain, everyone has their favorite theory about how Willys Quad came to be called the Jeep vehicle.

Some people say the Jeep name came from the slurring of the acronym G.P. for General Purpose vehicle, the designation the Army gave to the new vehicle.

Another explanation, according to Col. A.W. Herrington, is that the name was used in Oklahoma as early as 1934 to designate a truck equipped with special equipment for drilling oil wells.

Others claim the vehicle was called a "Jeep," in reference to the character "Eugene the Jeep" in the 1936 Popeye comic strip by E.C. Edgar. Eugene the Jeep was a small, impish looking animal that had the power to travel back and forth between dimensions and could solve all sorts of problems.

Yet another version is that Irving "Red" Haussman, a Willys-Overland test-driver who tested the first pilot model picked up the Jeep name that some soldiers at Camp Holabird had been using. Shortly thereafter, Red gave a demonstration ride to a group of dignitaries in Washington, D.C. Among the group was Katherine Hillyer, a reporter for the Washington Daily News who wrote an article about the vehicle that was published in February 1941 with the photo caption headline, "Jeep Creeps Up Capitol Steps." + This was perhaps the first reference to the vehicles' Jeep name by the media.

Whatever the origin of the Jeep name, the Jeep brand of vehicles has become one of the most recognized brands in the world.

In 1950, Willys obtained a United States Trademark Registration for the Jeep trademark. Since then, ownership of the Jeep trademark, which is also registered internationally, has passed from Willys-Overland to Kaiser to American Motors Corporation, and most recently, to Chrysler Corporation. Today, Chrysler Corporation, owns over 1,100 registrations for the Jeep® trademark throughout the world.

The chariot of the liberators was the mighty Jeep vehicle which played a extraordinary role during its first years in World War II.

From the start, Jeep vehicles captured the attention and admiration of people everywhere. They served their country in the war in Europe and the Pacific, and led an amazing life, helping to defeat the Axis powers and bring peace to the world.

War correspondent Ernie Pyle characterized the Jeep vehicle in this way. "It's as faithful as a dog, as strong as a mule and agile as a goat."

Jeep vehicles were used by every division of the U.S. Military and large numbers were also shipped to the Allied Forces of Canada, Britain, Australia and New Zealand.

Jeep vehicles became a vital part of all action on land. They were used to lay telephone communications, to transport the wounded, and as taxis to carry battle commanders, generals, prime ministers and presidents.

They were crated and freighted, broken down and built up, modified, converted and moved about by sea, rail, road and air. Transport crews could load a complete Jeep vehicle into a C-47 cargo plane, as they needed to be easily and rapidly deployed on the front lines where they were needed most.*

The CJ-2A and the first all-steel station wagon were the beginning of the Jeep vehicle line, and the forerunners of today's Wrangler and Cherokee.

As early as 1942, long before the war in Europe or the Pacific came to an end, Willys-Overland recognized that the popular Jeep vehicles could serve the civilian market as well. The phrase "the Jeep in Civvies" often appeared in Willys-Overland magazine and newspaper ads published on the home front during and just after World War II.

Other ads touted the heroic exploits of the Jeep vehicles in the war, declaring "the power and the stamina of the versatile "Jeep" will serve many needs in the years of reconstruction ahead."

Willys began to promote the versatility of the Jeep vehicle as a delivery, work and recreational vehicle with quotes like "When I get back I'll get a Jeep. It'll make a swell delivery car," "A Jeep can beat a team of horses all hollow." and "Gee wouldn't it be swell to have a Jeep at the lake after the war? Are you Jeep planning too?"*

The first civilian Jeep vehicle, the CJ-2A, was produced in 1945. Advertisements proclaimed it to be "A Powerhouse on Wheels," again selling it as a work vehicle for farmers and construction workers. It came with a tailgate, side-mounted spare, larger headlamps, an external fuel cap and many more items that its military predecessors did not include.

In 1946, Willys-Overland introduced the auto industry's first all-steel station wagon and sedan delivery vehicles. These two-wheel-drive vehicles featured seven-passenger capacity and reached a top speed of 65 mph. When four-wheel drive and a Willys six-cylinder engine were added in 1949, the Jeep All-Steel Station Wagon truly became the forerunner of the modern-day Jeep Cherokee.

The new 'Jeep' station wagon had pressed steel framing and three-tone paintwork which simulated the wood look. It used Jeep running gear and MB-style front sheet metal and was designed to compete against the "real" wood wagons still being manufactured by Detroit's Big Three. The new vehicle chassis was also available in a sedan delivery truck. Four-wheel drive would become available in these models in 1949 along with the 148 cubic-inch 'Lightning' six-cylinder engine.

The Jeep CJ-5 had the longest run of any production Jeep vehicle stretching from 1954 to 1984.

The CJ Model was updated in 1953, becoming the CJ-3B. It was the first Jeep CJ with noticeable body changes from its military predecessor. It had a taller body grille and hood to accommodate the new Hurricane F-Head four-cylinder engine. Although it had the same displacement as the original "Go Devil" engine, the "Hurricane" featured a revised valve train. The CJ-3B remained in production until 1968 and a total of 155,494 were manufactured in the U.S.

Willys-Overland was sold to the Henry J. Kaiser interests for $60 million in 1953. This would be the beginning of Kaiser's influence on the future of 4WD sport utility as the company began an extensive research and development program that would seek to broaden Jeep products in this area. The fruits of this project would first be seen in the fall of 1962.

Kaiser introduced the 1955 CJ-5 whose production and popularity would reach all the way into the 1980s. It was slightly longer and wider than the Jeep CJ-3B as it had an increased wheelbase, overall length and was wider. Constant improvements in power plants, axles, transmissions and seating comfort made the Jeep CJ-5 the ideal vehicle for the public's increasing interest in off-road activities. Although very similar to the CJ-2A that it replaced, it featured softer styling lines, including rounded body contours.

The 50s also saw the introduction of the "Hurricane" engine which was then the most economical and powerful engine in its class. This was the standard engine on the wagon with the "Lightning," the optional V6. During this time, Willys-Overland continued to sell their four-wheel-drive all-steel station wagon, and even licensed out its manufacturing to companies in Japan and Argentina.

During this time, Kaiser truly made the Jeep CJ vehicle an international symbol. In the 16 years of Kaiser ownership, manufacturing facilities were established in some 30 foreign countries, and Jeep vehicles were marketed in more than 150 countries around the world.

The debut of the J-Series Jeep Wagoneer was the beginning of the modern day Cherokee and Grand Cherokee. And the Jeep CJ became more powerful and popular than ever with the introduction of the six-cylinder engine, "Dauntless."

For 1963, Jeep introduced the new J-series with the Wagoneer. This vehicle was bigger than the station wagon and the first of what could properly be called a sport-utility vehicle.

The Wagoneer, powered by the first modern mass-produced overhead-cam six-cylinder truck engine known as the "Tornado-OHC" six, could also be had with an industry first automatic transmission on a four-wheel-drive vehicle and independent front suspension. It was offered in two and four-wheel-drive versions.

This, along with the J-series "Gladiator" pickups, was the first fresh non-military design from the company since the all steel-station wagon and sporty two-wheel-drive Jeepster. Both the Wagoneer and the Gladiator found a huge market with construction, agricultural and military buyers and evolved into a niche with everyday retail buyers who wanted a good looking, all-terrain vehicle for fishing, skiing, hunting, hauling and off-highway adventuring.

In the fall of 1965, a new "Dauntless" V-6 engine was introduced as an option on both the 81-inch wheelbase CJ-5 and 101-inch wheelbase CJ-6. The 155-horsepower engine almost doubled the horsepower of the standard Hurricane four-cylinder engine. It was the first time a Jeep CJ could be equipped with a V6, but would be only the beginning of the available six-cylinder engines that would come in the years to follow.

The second-generation Wagoneer also included a Super Wagoneer Station Wagon that featured three-tone body striping, vinyl roof, chrome roof rack, full wheel hubcaps and white-walled tires. The Super Wagoneer came with four-wheel drive and power supplied from a 327-cubic inch V8 engine, and said Kaiser Jeep, "constituted a unique and dramatic approach to the station wagon market ... designed for the prestige buyer who is rapidly becoming aware of the advantages of four-wheel drive. While being the ultimate in detailed elegance, the new vehicle still has all the traditional versatility and ability of Jeep vehicles to go on-or off-road."

As production of Jeep vehicles increased threefold during the 1970s, AMC made many improvements to Jeep vehicles including a choice of four, six or eight-cylinder engines.

In 1970, after two decades of growth and international expansion, Kaiser Jeep was bought by American Motors Corporation. Their first move was to split civilian and military vehicle production, and this proved to be the right move as 4WD vehicles became more popular than ever in the civilian market. By 1978, total Jeep vehicle production was up to 600 vehicles a day, over three times what it had been at the start of the decade.

American Motors sold their Jeep vehicles with the line, "with the guts to come on stronger than ever." All Jeep CJ's came equipped with AMC-built engines, and all were available with 304- or 360-cubic inch V8 engines. AMC equipped both the CJ-5 and CJ-6 with heavier axles, brawnier brakes, a wider track, and higher-capacity heater/defrosters while attaching a new theme to this legend, "If a new Jeep vehicle can't take you there, maybe you ought to think twice about going."

Also in the '70s, four-wheel drive vehicles made a major leap from utility to family motoring. By the end of the decade, Ford, Chevrolet and Chrysler had all launched new vehicles for the burgeoning sport-utility market.

The Jeep Wagoneer for 1972 included the biggest standard engine in the 4WD station wagon field — a 258-cubic-inch AMC-built OHV 6-cylinder. In 1974, the Cherokee became the two-door version of the Wagoneer, and there was also the larger Custom Wagoneer. A four door model of the Cherokee was available by 1977.

Also introduced to the Wagoneer line during the '70s was Quadra-Trac®, an automatic full-time 4WD system. This was another industry first.

In 1976, as America celebrated its 200th birthday and the Jeep vehicle its 35th birthday, AMC introduced the seventh generation of the civilian Jeep, the CJ-7. For the first time, the CJ-7 offered an optional molded plastic top and steel doors. Both the 93.5-inch wheelbase CJ-7 and 83.5-inch wheelbase CJ-5 models were built until 1983 when demand for the CJ-7 left AMC no choice but to discontinue the CJ-5 and concentrate on the CJ-7 and Scrambler.

A direct descendant to the Jeep CJ, the new 1987 Jeep Wrangler improved upon the legendary design. And the Jeep Cherokee (XJ) was introduced for 1984, becoming one of the most popular Jeep vehicles ever.

Wrangler Story

In 1983, after having enjoyed a 30-year production run, AMC discontinued the CJ-5 and concentrated on the production of the CJ-7 and the Scrambler, a small 4WD Jeep CJ-like vehicle that was also a small pickup that became known internationally as the CJ-8.

However, while the growing market for compact 4WD vehicles still sought the utilitarian virtues of the Jeep CJ series, consumers also were seeking more of the "creature features" associated with the typical passenger car. AMC responded to this market demand in 1986 by discontinuing the CJ series and by introducing the 1987 Jeep Wrangler (YJ). Although the Wrangler shared the familiar open-body profile of the CJ-7, it contained few common parts with its famous predecessor. In fact, mechanically, the Wrangler had more in common with the Cherokee (XJ) than the CJ-7. With the Wrangler, AMC was able to improve the comfort, ride quality and appearance while preserving the durability and unrivaled off-road prowess of the Jeep CJ-7.

On August 5, 1987, a little more than a year after the introduction of the Wrangler, American Motors Corporation was sold to the Chrysler Corporation and the popular Jeep brand became a part of the Jeep/Eagle Division of Chrysler Corporation.

Cherokee Story

A market research program undertaken by American Motors Corporation culminated in the birth of the modern Cherokee.

Research had found that future markets lay in compact sport-utility vehicles. AMC then pumped $250 million into the design and production of the new compact 1984 (XJ) Cherokee and Wagoneer sports wagons. They were introduced to the press at Borrego Springs, California, in late 1983 and immediately received rave reviews.

The new Cherokee was a unique and revolutionary vehicle. It measured in 21 inches shorter, 6 inches narrower, 4 inches lower and weighed 1,000 pounds less than the Jeep Wagoneer (SJ) first introduced in 1962. It was the only compact sport utility to offer two-door and four-door models. It was built as a UniFrame body rather than using a traditional chassis and frame construction. It was named "4x4 of the Year" by three magazines in 1984. It was powered by either a four-cylinder base model or an optional 2.8-litre six-cylinder engine. In 1987, a 4.0-litre I-6 would become the premium power plant.

Several four-wheel drive systems, including Command-Trac® and Selec-Trac®, offered either part-time or full-time four-wheel traction. Various interior and exterior styling, comfort and off-road performance packages were also offered. The model line continued largely unchanged into the '90s, although many revisions and improvements were made to the Cherokee.

The '90s saw the introduction of the highly popular and award winning Jeep Grand Cherokee. And the Wrangler and the Cherokee were redesigned and refined for 1997 model year. In recognition of this, Petersen's 4-Wheel &Off Road named the Wrangler its "4x4 of the Year," and Four Wheeler magazine named Cherokee its "Four Wheeler of the Year" in 1997.

The '90s saw Jeep engineers develop a right-hand-drive version of the Cherokee. This produced a model that made it possible to sell to domestic mail fleets and to export markets in Britain, Australia and Japan. Over half of all Chrysler vehicles sold overseas are Cherokees. Jeep engineers had one more model to add to this winning new range: the Grand Wagoneer Limited. It was introduced as the ultimate luxury performance model, powered by an electronically fuel-injected 5.9-litre V8 engine. But with the introduction of the 1993 Grand Cherokee, the Grand Wagoneer Limited was discontinued.

Today, the latest version of the Cherokee combines over 50 years of engineering and technological excellence with the classic styling and practicality of a Jeep vehicle.

And the latest version of Jeep Wrangler includes the most user friendly folding soft top yet and the Quadra-Coil™ suspension that improves both the Wrangler's off-road prowess and on-road ride.

Bibliography

* Fetherston, David. 1995. Jeep: Warhorse, Workhorse and Boulevard Cruiser, Motorbooks International, Osceola, WI. + Jeep/Eagle Public Relations. 1993. Jeep: The first 50 years..., Chrysler Corporation, Highland Park, MI.



Dodge is a great American manufacturer of automobiles. They have created many convenient as well as top of the market cars. The Dodge brothers, John and Horace originated the company in Detroit, Michigan. These brothers were early stockholders and engine builders for Ford Motor Co. before producing their first car in November 1914.

The Dodge brothers were great workers and knew the business. Their first car was noted for its extra styles. It was built with "12 volt electrics and back to front (refer to source 6)" gear changes. These features were industrialized but only used until 1926. Their car was the Dodge 4, a tough automobile accepted by the American army. It was used in General Pershing's battles into Mexico in 1914, while also used in World War I as ambulances or staff cars.

Dodge has been becoming a quite popular motor vehicle. In 1916 it established the Budd all-steel bodywork, which was used quite frequently thereafter. As the brothers searched the market they gained notoriety. The price of their cars were $785 while also being fourth in overall sales in the United States in 1916 with 70,700 cars sold. By 1920 the company moved to second in overall sales. By 1924 the Dodge 4 was still the main product, while 1000 cars were being produced a day. A breakthrough came in 1927 when a 3.7 litre, six cylinder automobile exploded into the industry with "internal-expanding hydraulic brakes.

In July 1928, the company was sold to Walter Chrysler for $175,000,000. The Dodge 4 was discontinued and new front wheel brakes approached the market. After the purchase Dodge still kept their individuality. Their cars became more expensive, but they did offer a standard 6 for $765 in 1929, while other models approached $1000.

Dodge continued to grow over the years under Chrysler's improvements. Their improvements were due to exceptional productions, new styles, innovations, and publicity. With the improvements, prices rose with bigger engines and greater degrees of horsepower. Free wheels, straight 8 cylinder engines, gearboxes, front suspension, and other innovations made the automobile market soar. In 1933 Dodge took fourth place in sales once again with 86,062 cars sold.

In 1952 the highly publicized V-8 was initialized under the name Red Ram. It was a great car, which the public enjoyed, but newer cars continued to produce. By 1959 the most powerful car emerged with 345 horsepower and 6.3 litres. This was a great alternative even though production and innovation continued to increase. The company began to offer coupes in 1966 instead of sedans. The Lancer, a compact car, was introduced in 1961. The company soon produced three basic types in 1961: the semi-compact Dart, the bigger Coronets, and the full-size Polara and Monaco V-8s. These cars became mainstream along with others under the Chrysler Corporation.

Overall numerous developments occurred over the years. Many new cars were produced from 1914 to the present. Some of the biggest products came in the last twenty years with the introduction of the full size pickup truck, Dodge Ram and the minivan, Dodge Caravan. These cars also went mainstream due to their extra styles and dependability on the road. The Dodge brothers formed the company and manufactured quality automobile through cheap prices and upgraded technology. With such innovation and strength the brothers brought the company into a huge and lucrative market.